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This list is of Key Individual Contributors to the field of PM:
Frederick Taylor (1856–1915), also known as the father of "scientific management", applied scientific reasoning to the industrial system in how labor can be studied and analyzed. By breaking down the work into its elementary parts he could improve productivity. This was applied across all tasks found in a factory system and industrial mills. Prior to this productivity improvements could be made only through longer hours from the work force. The approach relied upon time and motion studies to find the best method shorn of unrequired extra movements.
The Gilbreths (Frank 1868-1924 and Lillian) worked with standardization and method studies. In one example, bricklayers were observed and it was determined that no two used the same technique or set of motions . With his wife they studied the work habits of various manufacturing and clerical jobs to determine how out could be increased.
Henry Gantt (1861–1919), was an associate of Taylor, and studied in great detail the order of operations in work. He studied management techniques specifically in the field of the construction of naval ship in the First World War. As a result, he created the Gantt chart, a system of outlining the sequence and duration of all tasks in a process, reflected by task bars and milestone markers. For the past hundred years Gantt charts have remained little unchanged and are a proven analytical tool for managers. The advent of project management software has increased the popularity and usefulness of Gantt charts by adding links to task bars providing more precise dependencies between tasks. Gantt charts were used on major infrastructure projects including the Hoover Dam (1931-36) and Interstate highway system (1956).
Charles Bedaux (1886-1945) was a contributor to the field of scientific management and worked out ideas about measuring human energy which led to startling improvements in productivity. These were based on the concept of rating assessment in timing work.